Software Development

Software development is the process of computer programming, documenting, testing, and bug fixing involved in creating and maintaining applications and frameworks resulting in a software product. Software development is a process of writing and maintaining the source code, but in a broader sense, it includes all that is involved between the conception of the desired software through to the final manifestation of the software, sometimes in a planned and structured process.Therefore, software development may include research, new development, prototyping, modification, reuse, re-engineering, maintenance, or any other activities that result in software products.

Software can be developed for a variety of purposes, the three most common being to meet specific needs of a specific client/business (the case with custom software), to meet a perceived need of some set of potential users (the case with commercial and open source software), or for personal use (e.g. a scientist may write software to automate a mundane task). Embedded software development, that is, the development of embedded software such as used for controlling consumer products, requires the development process to be integrated with the development of the controlled physical product. System software underlies applications and the programming process itself, and is often developed separately.

The need for better quality control of the software development process has given rise to the discipline of software engineering, which aims to apply the systematic approach exemplified in the engineering paradigm to the process of software development.

There are many approaches to software project management, known as software development life cycle models, methodologies, processes, or models. The waterfall model is a traditional version, contrasted with the more recent innovation of agile software development.

Web Development

Web development is a broad term for the work involved in developing a web site for the Internet(World Wide Web) or an intranet (a private network). Web development can range from developing the simplest static single page of plain text to the most complex web-based internet applications, electronic businesses, and social network services. A more comprehensive list of tasks to which web development commonly refers, may include web engineering, web design, web content development, client liaison, client-side server-side scripting, web server and network security configuration, and e-commerce development. Among web professionals, “web development” usually refers to the main non-design aspects of building web sites: writing markup and coding. Most recently Web development has come to mean the creation of content management systems or CMS. These CMS can be made from scratch, proprietary or open source. In broad terms the CMS acts as middleware between the database and the user through the browser. A principle benefit of a CMS is that it allows non-technical people to make changes to their web site without having technical knowledge.

For larger organizations and businesses, web development teams can consist of hundreds of people (web developers) and follow standard methods like Agile methodologies while developing websites. Smaller organizations may only require a single permanent or contracting developer, or secondary assignment to related job positions such as a graphic designer and/or information systems technician. Web development may be a collaborative effort between departments rather than the domain of a designated department. There are 3 kind of web developer specialization; Front-End Developer, Back-End Developer, and Full Stack Developer.

Web development as an industry

Since the commercialization of the web, web development has been a growing industry. The growth of this industry is being driven by businesses wishing to use their website to sell products and services to customers.

There is open source software for web development like BerkeleyDB, GlassFish, LAMP (Linux, Apache, MySQL, PHP) stack and Perl/Plack. This has kept the cost of learning web development to a minimum. Another contributing factor to the growth of the industry has been the rise of easy-to-use WYSIWYG web-development software, such as Adobe Dreamweaver, BlueGriffon and Microsoft Visual Studio. Knowledge of HyperText Markup Language (HTML) or of programming languages is still required to use such software, but the basics can be learned and implemented quickly with the help of help files, technical books, internet tutorials, or face-to-face training.

An ever growing set of tools and technologies have helped developers build more dynamic and interactive websites. Further, web developers now help to deliver applications as web services which were traditionally only available as applications on a desk-based computer. This has allowed for many opportunities to decentralize information and media distribution. Examples can be seen with the rise of cloud services such as Adobe Creative Cloud, Dropbox and Google Docs. These web services allow users to interact with applications from many locations, instead of being tied to a specific workstation for their application environment.

Examples of dramatic transformation in communication and commerce led by web development include e-commerce. Online auction-sites such as eBay have changed the way consumers find and purchase goods and services. Online retailers such as Amazon.com and Buy.com (among many others) have transformed the shopping and bargain-hunting experience for many consumers. Another good example of transformative communication led by web development is the blog. Web applications such as WordPress and Movable Type have created easily implemented blog-environments for individual web sites. The popularity of open-source content management systems such as Joomla!, Drupal, XOOPS, and TYPO3 and enterprise content management systems such as Alfresco and eXo Platform have extended web development’s impact at online interaction and communication.

Web development has also impacted personal networking and marketing. Websites are no longer simply tools for work or for commerce, but serve more broadly for communication and social networking. Websites such as Facebook and Twitter provide users with a platform to communicate and organizations with a more personal and interactive way to engage the public.

Security considerations

Web development takes into account many security considerations, such as data entry error checking through forms, filtering output, and encryption. Malicious practices such as SQL injection can be executed by users with ill intent yet with only primitive knowledge of web development as a whole. Scripts can be used to exploit websites by granting unauthorized access to malicious users that try to collect information such as email addresses, passwords and protected content like credit card numbers.

Some of this is dependent on the server environment on which the scripting language, such as ASP, JSP, Perl, PHP, Python, Perl or Ruby is running, and therefore is not necessarily down to the web developer themselves to maintain. However, stringent testing of web applications before public release is encouraged to prevent such exploits from occurring. If some contact form is provided in a website it should include a captcha field in it which prevents computer programs from automatically filling forms and also mail spamming.

Keeping a web server safe from intrusion is often called Server Port Hardening. Many technologies come into play to keep information on the internet safe when it is transmitted from one location to another. For instance TLS certificates (or “SSL certificates”) are issued by certificate authorities to help prevent internet fraud. Many developers often employ different forms of encryption when transmitting and storing sensitive information. A basic understanding of information technology security concerns is often part of a web developer’s knowledge.

Because new security holes are found in web applications even after testing and launch, security patch updates are frequent for widely used applications. It is often the job of web developers to keep applications up to date as security patches are released and new security concerns are discovered.

Domain Registration

Internet Domain Names worldwide have assumed greater significance in recent times with the Internet increasingly being used as an effective medium for commerce, governance, education and communication. The system of registration of Internet Domain Names can facilitate the proliferation of Internet in a country. Many countries have, therefore, adopted liberal and market friendly policies to register large number of Domain Names under their country code, broadly consistent with globally accepted policy and procedures of Domain registration.

In India, .IN is the allocated country code Top Level Domain (ccTLD). It is recognized that its all round adoption by Indian residents, individuals, Government entities, public service organizations and businesses will help in establishing their Indian identity in the Internet space using a short and unique Domain Name.

The number of .IN Domain Names so far registered does not truly represent the penetration of information technology in India when seen in conjunction with the dimension and vibrancy of the Indian economy and the number of companies and public institutions operating in the area of Information Technology (IT) and Information Technology enabled Services (ITeS). An overcautious registration policy and absence of contemporary processes and infrastructure for registration have so far hindered the growth of .IN Domain. It is widely recognized that .IN Domain Name has an untapped growth potential. A proactive policy for .IN Domain proliferation can help establish .IN as a globally recognized symbol of India 's growth in the area of IT.

After an indepth review of the situation, the Government has decided to revamp the .IN Domain Name Registry in India to provide a greater thrust to its activities. The new policy for .IN Domain Name registration covers the following main elements:

  • Unlimited generic .IN registration will be offered at 2 nd level of Domain Name and also at the 3 rd level in the globally popular zones of Domain registration, e.g., .co.in, .net.in and .org.in.
  • Registrations will be carried out by Registrars to be appointed by the .IN Registry through an open process of selection on the basis of transparent eligibility criteria.
  • Registrations will be offered by the Registrars following a competitive pricing policy and best market practices. The minimum fee charged by the .IN Registry will be Rs. 250 and Rs. 500 per year for registrations at 3 rd and 2 nd levels respectively.
  • The .IN Registry will adopt Uniform Dispute Resolution Policy (UDRP), and will be assisted by a Dispute Resolution Committee to resolve disputes involving the Registry. It will also appoint Arbitrators to address disputes involving the Registrars and the registrants.
  • The entire process of registration will be online and should be completed in less than 24 hours of the receipt of the request from a registrant.
  • The .IN Registry will announce a Sunrise period' of 90 days to enable registered trademark owners, registered companies and owners of intellectual property having a legitimate interest in protecting their brand to secure registration of their Domain Names after due verification.
  • The zones for Government, Military and Educational Institutions will be reserved for exclusive use by the respective organizations. Registrations for these will be offered by NIC, an organization nominated by the Ministry of Defence, and ERNET, respectively.
  • The .IN Registry will have the authority to deny or suspend any registration if it conflicts with the sovereign national interest or public order.
  • The names of Constitutional Authorities, States/Union Territories and specific names used by the .IN Registry will constitute the reserved category of names, which will not be available to the general public.

 

Web Hosting

Web hosting is the service that makes your website available to be viewed by others on the Internet. A web host provides space on its server, so that other computers around the world can access your website by means of a network or modem. There are literally thousands of web hosting services available today, ranging from free services with limited options to expensive, specialized business web hosting services. Which option you choose depends primarily on how you plan to use your website and how much you want to spend.

Types of Web Hosting Services

Internet Service Providers (ISPs)

Many people put up their first websites through their ISPs, because it's generally easy and inexpensive. Most ISP service packages include a small amount of free web space, along with tools to create and upload websites quickly and easily. ISP websites are perfect for people who want to put up small sites with low amounts of traffic. However, there are usually rate restrictions, and most ISPs don't offer a lot of features, so they might not be the best choice for a thriving business website.

Free Web Hosting

Free web hosting is another good option for smaller, personal websites. There are many free hosting providers that offer all types of features; some include CGI access and more. The drawback to most free hosting services is that they are funded by advertising that appears on your site, so free web hosting so generally best for personal, rather than business, websites.

Paid Hosting

With paid hosting, you pay a fee for space and services on a web hosting provider's server. Monthly fees can range from a few dollars to several hundred dollars. Obviously, the more you pay, the more features you should have at your disposal. Services can include CGI access, database support, ASP, e-commerce, SSL, additional space on the server, extra bandwidth, and more.

Domain Hosting

A good option for small businesses is to pay for domain hosting. Domain hosting allows you to host your site anywhere you like: on an ISP, a free hosting service, or even your own server. You buy a domain name and have the provider forward all requests for that domain to the actual web location. This is often less expensive than buying both the domain and the hosting service, and it allows businesses to brand their URLs.

Collocation

Collocation is an option for businesses that want to run their own web servers and machines, but don't want to have to maintain them directly. With collocation, the website owner places its own server on the premises of its ISP or other host, where it is stored, maintained, and provided with an uninterrupted power supply. Collocation provides security and protection for your server while still giving you control of your own equipment.

Direct Internet Access

Hosting your site yourself offers you the most control over your web server. Companies with large data centers or that require high security in every aspect of their web and Internet access should look into this type of hosting.

E-Commerce Website Development

Electronic Commerce (E-Commerce) is the paperless exchange of business information via Electronic Data Interchange (EDI) and Internet related technologies. In recent times E Commerce emerged as one of the most important features of Internet. E-Commerce is a process that involves conducting of business via Internet with the help of computers that are linked each other forming a network. Through E Commerce we can do Internet shopping, online stocking, bond transactions, download and sell software, documents, graphics, music, etc. and business-to-business (B2B) transactions.

The digital communication revolutionizes the pattern of business through out the world.  With the help of E-Commerce one can do business globally. Nowadays business houses, organizations and individuals can offer their services and products for global customers. Onsite presentation and placement of products help end-users to know about the offerings and services provided by an organization, and the paperless, on demand and timeless transaction helps both service providers and end-users.

The notion of e-commerce is using the Internet to do business in better and faster manner. It is all about providing customers to access your computer systems and allowing people to surf themselves based on their demand. It is the way for the consumers to communicate with any company’s computer systems without human intervention.

The Internet has created virtual marketplace through e-commerce and facilitated buyers in picking or exchanging of goods or services quickly and conveniently both regionally and globally. Today, e-commerce has grown into a huge industry.

Digital Marketing

Now internet marketing is much more cost-effective, all-inclusive, easy to handle, and just a tick of mouse can, without much of a stretch do a great part of the specialized work that, as at then required outsourcing. This provides ascend to huge opportunities for both small scale and large scale businesses to enhance their sales through internet marketing in an efficacious fashion.

 

Internet marketing in 2017 is rapidly developing its ubiquity and significance. Today, attention of entire world is centered around web; individuals of any age, ethnic, background and societal position are very much connected to web in one way or the other, to channelize their personal, professional or business related procedures. This lets internet marketing be an indispensable modern day tool that businesses, marketers and entrepreneurs should use to enhance their client base, marketing reach, lead generations, conversions and ultimately to increase their profits and optimize their brand.

 

 

More of the expert life is moving on the web – and progressively, the organizations that succeed are the ones that figure out how to use internet marketing adequately.

 

 

A great deal of independent business people that I talk with are exceptionally inquisitive about internet marketing, however, they do not know how it can specifically help them expand their business. A considerable lot of them are seeing less come back from their promotions in traditional media like daily papers and direct mailing efforts, and are hoping to investigate better approaches for extending their piece of the pie.

 

Internet marketing is the medium that can help them expand their business and reap great profits.